Tourism boom pressures Tibet’s historic sites

Mark Schiefelbein & Sam Mcneil

LHASA, CHINA (AP) — Tourism is booming in Tibet as more Chinese travel in-country because of the coronavirus pandemic, posing risks to the region’s fragile environment and historic sites.

The number of visitors is limited to 5,000 per day at the Potala Palace. Balancing tourist demand with the need to minimise wear and tear on the massive hillside structure is a constant challenge, said head administrator Gonggar Tashi.

“The biggest challenge for us is the contradiction between the protection and usage of the cultural relics,” Tashi told journalists in Lhasa, the Tibetan capital.

He spoke during a government-organised tour that gave foreign journalists rare access to Tibet, but under the watchful eye of officials who set the agenda.

Millions of visitors come to Tibet every year, and 2020 saw a 12.6 per cent increase from the previous year, said Deputy Director Ge Lei of the China Tourism Marketing Association. He expects the amount of visitors to roughly double by 2026.

ABOVE & BELOW: Chinese tourists in Tibetan dress pose for a photo at a square near the Potala Palace in Lhasa; and a Chinese tourist riding a white yak being led by a Tibetan man in Namtso in western China’s Tibet Autonomous Region. PHOTOS: AP

The glut of visitors, far exceeding Tibet’s population of 3.5 million people, means caution is necessary to protect the environment and culture, he said.

Tourists are drawn to the “mystique and myth of Tibet as a remote snow-bound land”, said Travis Klingberg, a cultural geographer at NYU Shanghai. “But Tibet has become a place of beautiful natural landscapes meaningful to the Chinese nation.”

Tibet has shifted its focus from international to domestic visitors as China’s middle class has grown, said Professor of Geography at the University of Colorado Boulder Emily Yeh.

Tibetans have at times complained about tourists disrespecting cultural traditions, including stepping on prayer flags, she said.

The tourism sector reinforces government propaganda, Yeh said. The ruling Communist Party said it liberated hundreds of thousands of serfs when it overthrew the theocracy in 1951 and has since brought economic development to the high plateau that borders the Himalayas.

“Rewriting of history is very much a part of the tourism landscape,” Yeh said.

Among the most popular natural sites is Namtso Lake, ringed by snow-capped peaks and Buddhist shrines, with yak herds and migrating birds on the horizon. Further development of the site must be done carefully to avoid damaging what makes it attractive, Ge said.

“It will be hard to protect the ecology and culture of Tibet … if we don’t have a long-term plan,” he said. “So it is very important to establish a set of values and rules of behaviour for travel in Tibet while building the facilities.”