From parade to pandemic: Museum looks at 1918’s deadly flu

Kristen De Groot

PHILADELPHIA (AP) – On September 28, 1918, in the waning days of World War I, over 200,000 people gathered along Broad Street in Philadelphia for a parade meant to raise funds for the war effort. Among the patriotic throngs cheering for troops and floats was an invisible threat, which would be more dangerous to soldiers and civilians than any foreign enemy: the influenza virus.

Officials went ahead with the parade despite the discouragement of the city health department about the ever-spreading virus. Within 72 hours of the parade, all the hospital beds in Philadelphia were full of flu patients. Within six weeks, more than 12,000 people died – a death every five minutes – and 20,000 had died within six months.

Despite the human toll, there has been no memorial or public remembrance of flu victims in the city.

Until now.

The Mutter Museum, known for its collection of organs preserved in jars, deformed skeletons and wax casts of medical maladies, is launching new permanent exhibit on the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in Philadelphia.

The Mutter Museum in Philadelphia is known for its collection of organs preserved in jars, deformed skeletons and wax casts of medical maladies. The museum has a new permanent exhibit on the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in Philadelphia. PHOTOS: AP
Justin Johnson constructs part of parade float at NextFab in Philadelphia
ABOVE & BELOW: This September 28, 1918 photo shows the Naval Aircraft Factory float moving south on Broad Street, escorted by sailors during a parade meant to raise funds for the war effort, in Philadelphia; and an October 19, 1918 photo shows a sign is posted at the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia indicating the Spanish Influenza was then extremely active

“Spit Spreads Death” opened on October 17, and features interactives mapping the pandemic, artifacts, images and personal stories.

“It’s still referred to by some historians as the forgotten pandemic, because how many Americans are conscious of it today?” said the museum’s director Robert Hicks.

The exhibit takes its name from health department signs that popped up around the city as the pandemic spread.

Ahead of the exhibit’s launch, the museum presented a parade along the same stretch of road where the ill-fated Liberty Loan Parade took place.

A sort of moving memorial, the parade featured about 500 members of the public honouring victims of the pandemic, four illuminated floats and an original piece of music performed by Grammy-winning choir The Crossing.

“The parade has turned into an interesting commemorative act,” said Matt Adams, co-founder of Blast Theory, the artists’ group who created the parade. Anyone was welcome to sign up to participate and choose the name of an actual flu victim to honour while marching. Marchers were given a sign with the name of the person they chose and moved along the parade route flanked by the illuminated sculptures. Members of city’s public health community were urged to join in.

“This is all about the process of remembering what the risks are in public health, because that is a crucial way for us to stay safe today,” he said.

More United States (US) soldiers died from the flu than from battles in Europe during the war. It was called the Spanish flu at the time because Spain was neutral during the conflict and had no restrictions on the press, and could therefore report the outbreak freely, said Nancy Hill, special projects manager at the museum. The general public in much of the US was uninformed about the virus because of the crackdown on news and any speech deemed unpatriotic. Speaking of soldiers dying from the flu fell into that category.

About 500 million people, or one-third of the world’s population, became infected with the virus. An estimated 20-50 million died around the world, with about 675,000 flu-related deaths in the US. Troops moving around the globe in crowded ships and trains helped the deadly virus spread as the war dragged on.

The exhibit itself included interactives that allow people to explore their own neighbourhoods to see how the flu hit their street, and even their own homes. Among the most poignant artefacts was a selection of Christmas gifts that a woman named Naomi Whitehead Ellis Ford purchased for friends and family, all fitted with handwritten personal notes to the intended recipients.

But they were never handed out, because she passed away from the flu on October 21.

Hicks hopes visitors take away a sense of the scope of the pandemic and see how the city came together to help each other, and to be vigilant – getting vaccines, taking common-sense healthcare measures and staying informed. The museum even threw a health fair in a south Philadelphia neighborhood, offering everything from flu shots to Narcan training.